Skin Cancer – Types-Causes-Symptoms and Treatment
In recent years, the incidence of skin cancer worldwide has increased, and this condition is now affecting millions of people worldwide. The most common reason is prolonged exposure to harmful ultraviolet rays in sunlight. The risk is high if anyone stays or takes vacations in sunny places. Recent depletion of the ozone layer is thought to contribute to an increase in the incidence, for the ozone layer also serves as a protection against harmful ultraviolet light. In addition, tanning booths, which use ultraviolet light, may cause cancer. People with fair skin are at greater risk because of their low levels of melanin, a pigment that gives the skin its color and helps protect it from harmful ultraviolet rays.
The four most important types are;
. Melanoma is a skin tumor that is sensitive and may endanger life.
. Basal cell carcinoma, is a very common, invasive and destructive skin tumor (destroys tissue in a nearby area), but usually does not spread or cause death.
. Squamous cell carcinoma, which is three times more common than basal cell carcinoma but which behaves in a similar way.
. Bowen’s disease is a cousin of squamous cell carcinoma but it develops, involving only the outer part of the skin.
A typical basal cell carcinoma is a highly circular tumor, resembling a reddish-brown pearl due to red blood vessels flowing across or between them. Sometimes several small bumps form a circle. They bleed easily and sometimes have abscesses. Squamous cell carcinoma is poorly defined, has uneven, poorly defined boundaries and may be scaly, cracked, red with a rough surface. Bowen’s disease is usually a red or pink rash that resembles a high crust with very clear borders. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma usually occur in exposed areas of the skin.
Causes: The cause of cancer is unknown. However, it is thought that squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma are associated with a proliferation of sunlight throughout life. Light-skinned people have these plants more often than people who are darker in colour. Malignant melanoma is believed to be associated with more severe sunburn during childhood, adolescence, or adolescence. Also, it is more common in people with fair complexion, especially those with blue or green eyes, spots and almost white skin. The tendency to develop melanoma appears to run in families.
. Skin lesions with persistent sores or bleeding
. Continuous skin lesions that change size, texture, or color (skin change).
Biopsy should be performed on any suspicious skin lesions. When diagnosing pigmented skin lesions, a doctor will usually look for signs of positive and negative symptoms. Negative symptoms include
. Uneven pigmentation or wound color
. Unusual boundaries
. Marked height
. The larger size (larger than a pencil eraser)
Medical Treatment: Required Surgical Treatment.
Surgical Treatment: All of the types described above can be treated with surgery and the removal of the tumor. Surgical removal results in a better 90 per cent cure for colourless tumours (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and Bowen’s disease). Other ways to destroy cancer include using liquid-nitrogen freezing (cryosurgery) or curette scraping and tissue burning with electric cautery (electro desiccation and curettage).
Treatment of melanoma depends on the thickness of the tumor and the depth of the attack when examined under a microscope. If the tumour is small and pulls up, screening for lymph nodes cutting the skin area and chemotherapy.
Prevention: Prolonged exposure to the sun increases the risk of this cancer, so reducing exposure to the sun is the best protection, especially for those who are white. Most of them occur on the head, neck and hands, so clothing (wide-brimmed hats, long sleeves) and the use of a sun block with a 15-degree protection feature provide adequate protection.